3.EDUCATION IN ENGLAND
University education in the UK is increasing its popularity day by day. Universities in the UK, which have two memorial schools, Oxford and Cambridge, are among the world’s leading universities and are pioneers in many fields. One of the most favourite countries for foreign students in England. More than 442 thousand international students are actively studying. There are many advantages to studying in the UK:
- The process of finding a job is easier and faster for students studying in the UK.
- They step into their career life more successfully and faster.
- Make a more solid preparation for their professional careers
- İngiltere’de lisans eğitimi almış öğrenciler daha iyi İngilizce konuşmakta ve bu dile daha fazla hakim olmaktadır.
Besides, there are students from 180 different countries in England. This gives students the chance to get to know different cultures and study with them. Since the conditions of university education in the UK are flexible, students who do not need the ‘Foundation Program’, who have a solid high school education and have a high level of English, can complete their university education in as short as three years. This saves time and reduces costs in direct proportion to the time spent abroad.
Undergraduate Education in England
The British Education System is outlined as follows:
In England, the university system is divided into two. These; undergraduate and postgraduate degrees.
Undergraduate education is normally three years in other parts of the country except Scotland. In addition to the curriculum, students take a few more courses to develop their expertise in a particular subject and have a special field degree (honours) degree. Today, almost every undergraduate degree is now offered as ‘honours’. Many of the new universities behave more flexibly under the admissions conditions than the old universities, which provides an advantage for the candidates.
Universities offer students master and doctorate programs within the scope of postgraduate education. British universities in style educate students on independent thinking and decision making and encourage them to do research.
When does the UK academic year start and end?
In the UK, the academic year begins in September or October. However, each university may have different admission dates. Because some higher education institutions work periodically or doctorate, etc. Research students participating in programs can start their school anywhere in the school year. The education system in England consists of three terms. During the academic year, there are Christmas and Easter holidays, as well as a long summer holiday in the whole of August, covering part of July and September. Periods are generally longer for schools and colleges and shorter for universities.
How to enter university in the UK?
There are some criteria used for admission to British universities.
The criteria required for British students are as follows: they generally have a suitable and sufficient score from A-Level, AS-Levels, International Baccalaureate, BTEC and GNVQ (General National Vocational Education).
The desired criteria for foreign students is attending Foundation Courses.
There are different criteria for students who have obtained a high school diploma from Turkey. To attend the university, there is an obligatory education in “A-Level” diploma, which lasts 2 academic years, or an equivalent education such as “International Foundation Year”. Most of our students who have studied and graduated from normal high schools in Turkey begin higher education in the UK with foundation programs.
University Preparatory Education In The UK: Foundation
Basic or transition courses can be referred to as courses. The most important feature of Foundation courses is that they are arranged in such a way as to allow students who do not have the necessary qualifications to continue their university education. Some of these courses are for entry into special programs such as business, law, engineering or electronics, and others for a program like general social sciences. These courses last for one year and happen in one or more subjects, and most of these courses are linked to a certain degree of diploma at a university or college. Students who are successful in these courses have the right to attend the University.
What is HND / Foundation Degree?
The names of the types of programs that can be likened to undergraduate programs in Turkey HND / Foundation Degree programs are called. Students who want to go to business life shortly by attending HND programs usually in departments that do not require long-term university education participate. (Engineering, law, architecture etc.) It can be considered as a kind of vocational education programs. HND programs are the same in content but are also available under the name ‘Foundation Degree’. If students complete these programs and still wish to receive a university degree, they can earn a bachelor’s degree by participating in one-year programs called ‘top-up’. HND and Foundation Degree programs are more suitable for undergraduate programs in price. This is the most advantageous aspect of these programs.
What is A level?
After the students take the GCSE exam, they start the “sixth grade” (sixth form) and this process is completed in two years. These courses are the most used entry standard in admission to British universities or colleges and they are very important. Students take the A–Level exams in two or three subjects related to the subjects they want to study. These courses normally take 2 years, but in some places, there are A-Level courses completed in 1 year with intense and accelerated training. Foreign students can continue this course in one of the independent and secondary schools. It should be noted that the preparations for the A-Level exams are quite different from the preparation for the GCSE. Students are trained to specialize in an A-Level stage in 3-4 subjects in two years. A-Level education corresponds to the first year of education in the American university system. A-Level education has advantages such as early specialization in the subjects to be studied, however, it has the disadvantage of working in a narrower science field. Level courses should be evaluated by the candidates in these two aspects and the right decision should be made.
How and when to apply?
Students should apply to these programs in September or October, but for this, they must apply from autumn of the previous year. If the student has sufficient qualifications to apply directly to the school, he/she can apply directly through his application (UCAS). A university or college; Schools admit students, subject to the condition that their student has achieved certain grades in the A-Level or equivalent exams. If the applied university or college does not accept the student, UCAS sends the application to other educational institutions, which are still open. Up to 5 schools can be applied simultaneously through UCAS.
Pre-Master / Pre-Sessional Programs in the UK
The answer to the question of what is required to participate in master’s programs in the UK is quite simple; It is necessary to have a certain license average. The grade point average required for master programs at universities in England differs from school to school. Students who have completed a university in Turkey can benefit from the “pre-master’s program” that they wish to do in a graduate school where their undergraduate grade point average is not sufficient. Pre-master’s programs, which can start from one semester to one academic year, are technically designed to ‘upgrade’ the undergraduate CGPA of the student. In other words, programs created to raise the average can be called. In this way, the pre-master student is not affected by the low–grade point average and has the opportunity to do a master in a better school.
Pre-professional programs are another option for students and come into play according to the English level. Undergraduate or master program you want to attend in the UK requires a foreign language level as standard. There are lower limits such as IELTS 6.5, TOEFL 90IBT etc. When your foreign language test result is below, you can continue directly to the main program by participating in one of the pre-sessional programs offered before the main program at the university instead of taking the exam again. Participating in the Pre-sessional program can help relieve the stress of the exam, as well as provide additional benefits such as pre-compliance with the university or master’s degree. Students attending PreSessional programs in the UK must take the UKVI IELTS exam.
Master Education in the UK
In the UK, graduate programs are divided into two groups. These; they are teaching-based and research-based programs and are usually completed in one year. The basic admission criterion for applying to a master’s program in the UK is grade point average. The preferred average grade point average is usually 2.50 and above according to the selectivity of universities. However, direct admission is also possible under these conditions. As another option, the student may consider participating in pre-master’s programs.
Doctorate in the UK
Under normal circumstances, PhD programmes in the UK do not include courses. You go directly to the research period. Therefore, the duration of the program is 3 years and it is possible to complete the program in a shorter time compared to the USA. The most important study for those who will apply for a doctorate in the UK is called ‘Research Proposal’, which can be called the road map of the doctor. It is possible to say that the chances of those who have completed a master’s degree in this country are more likely to apply for a PhD to British universities. Britain has the advantage of shortening compared to the USA in making a PhD. It was quite difficult to get a scholarship and this part can be called a disadvantage. Students are equally responsible for school and living expenses.
Living Conditions and Accommodation in the UK
Students who study for a master’s degree in the UK especially choose the dormitory. because; There are several positive reasons such as shorter duration, fewer formalities of residence and safer dormitory. The guarantee of accommodation in the dormitory for the first year is given to students by almost all British universities. For this, the condition of making an application before a certain date may be sought. These dormitories usually offer a choice of “standard rooms” designed for one person, or the bathroom and toilet called “en-suite”. Unlike some dormitories, there are “studio flat” options that include the kitchen.
At the point of payment and contracts, schools make contracts for a long term and accommodation fee can be paid in cash or instalments according to the policy determined by the school.
Visa Requirements for University Education in the UK
The visa issued for education is the “Tier4 General Student” visa. To apply for this visa type, an amount of money that will cover the school and living expenses must be kept in the bank account for at least 28 days before the application. The bank account may belong to the student or mother/father. If the account belongs to the mother/father, a sponsorship letter is added to the documents. Living expenses are calculated in two ways, outlined in London and outside London.
- While the monthly living expenses for London centre are calculated as 1,265 GBP * 9 months (11,385 GBP in total),
- It is calculated as 1, 015GBP * 9 months (9,135 GBP in total) for the outskirts of London and places outside London.